Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (; Spanish: [ˈxorxe ˈlwis ˈborxes]  audio ; 24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature. His best-known books, Ficciones (Fictions) and El Aleph (The Aleph), published in the 1940s, are compilations of short stories interconnected by common themes, including dreams, labyrinths, libraries, mirrors, fictional writers, philosophy, and religion.

Borges' works have contributed to philosophical literature and the fantasy genre. Critic Ángel Flores, the first to use the term magical realism to define a genre that reacted against the dominant realism and naturalism of the 19th century, considers the beginning of the movement to be the release of Borges' A Universal History of Infamy (Historia universal de la infamia). However, some critics consider Borges to be a predecessor and not actually a magical realist. His late poems dialogue with such cultural figures as Spinoza, Camões, and Virgil.

In 1914, Borges' family moved to Switzerland, where he studied at the Collège de Genève. The family travelled widely in Europe, including Spain. On his return to Argentina in 1921, Borges began publishing his poems and essays in surrealist literary journals. He also worked as a librarian and public lecturer. In 1955, he was appointed director of the National Public Library and professor of English Literature at the University of Buenos Aires. He became completely blind by the age of 55; as he never learned braille, he became unable to read. Scholars have suggested that his progressive blindness helped him to create innovative literary symbols through imagination.

In 1961, he came to international attention when he received the first Formentor prize (Prix International), which he shared with Samuel Beckett. In 1971, he won the Jerusalem Prize. His work was translated and published widely in the United States and Europe. Borges himself was fluent in several languages. He dedicated his final work, The Conspirators, to the city of Geneva, Switzerland.

His international reputation was consolidated in the 1960s, aided by his works being available in English, by the Latin American Boom and by the success of García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude. Writer and essayist J. M. Coetzee said of him: "He, more than anyone, renovated the language of fiction and thus opened the way to a remarkable generation of Spanish American novelists."

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Jorge Luis Borges Books and Works List

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  1. 1
    Ficciones
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  2. 2
    Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge's Taxonomy
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    The Aleph
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  4. 4
    The Library of Babel
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  5. 5
    Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius
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  6. 6
    Book of Imaginary Beings
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  7. 7
    The Garden of Forking Paths
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  8. 8
    Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote
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  9. 9
    The Book of Sand
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  10. 10
    Funes the Memorious
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  11. 11
    The Aleph
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    A Universal History of Infamy
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    Historia de la eternidad
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  14. 14
    The Zahir
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  15. 15
    The Secret Miracle
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  16. 16
    Inquisitions
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    The South
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    Labyrinths
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    Fervor de Buenos Aires
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    Emma Zunz
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  21. 21
    The House of Asterion
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  22. 22
    The Circular Ruins
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  23. 23
    The Immortal
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  24. 24
    The Other
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  25. 25
    Deutsches Requiem
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  26. 26
    The Theologians
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  27. 27
    Dreamtigers
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  28. 28
    Brodie's Report
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  29. 29
    An Examination of the Work of Herbert Quain
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    Death and the Compass
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    The Book of Sand
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    Three Versions of Judas
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  33. 33
    The Dead Man
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  34. 34
    Averroes's Search
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  35. 35
    Other Inquisitions
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  36. 36
    The Approach to Al-Mu'tasim
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  37. 37
    The Lottery in Babylon
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  38. 38
    The Analytical Language of John Wilkins
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  39. 39
    The Writing of the God
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  40. 40
    A New Refutation of Time
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  41. 41
    On Exactitude in Science
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  42. 42
    Ulrikke
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  43. 43
    Borges and I
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  44. 44
    The Congress
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  45. 45
    Theme of the Traitor and the Hero
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  46. 46
    Cuaderno San Martín
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  47. 47
    There Are More Things
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  48. 48
    The Sect of the Phoenix
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  49. 49
    The Disk
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  50. 50
    The Wait
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